Between January 1 and January 6, 1820, the Imperial Russian Naval expedition raided several small Yaghan settlement on the coast of Tierra Del Fuego where they observed fires on shore. The raids collectively captured seven women and six men of the Yaghan tribes who were almost entirely unknown to Europeans and who had never had contact with them before. Fabian von Bellingshausen, commander of the exploration expedition, hoped that the captives would be able to learn rudimentary Russian and help map the region be acting as intermediaries with other natives. For three weeks, the expedition sailed as close to due south as they could tacking back and forth through the rapid winds that blew steadily out of the west.
on the 27th of January, the expedition spotted an icy land mass and the
commander chose to continue south along its coast, anchoring off shore
at dusk. Some time in the short period of twilight darkness that
prevailed very early on the 28th, one of the Yaghan managed to free his
fellow tribe members, and they all slipped overboard and swam ashore
through the bone chillingly cold waters unseen.
When the escape was discovered at breakfast time, the commander
considered sending the long boat to search the shore for bodies but due
to the very harsh cold quickly concluded the foolish natives had died of
exposure. Believing he had satisfied his Imperial objective of proving
there was nothing worth having in the far south the two ships
circumnavigated the Antarctic ice fields before they returned north.
Once again raiding a Yaghan village in Tierra del Fuego so that he would
have captives for the Czar of the Russian Empire as proof of their
diligence, Fabian von Bellingshausen returned to Russia in 1821.
Though he had no idea of the eventual consequences of his actions, the
Russian expedition had not resulted in the deaths of 13 Yaghan in the
icy waters of the Antarctic Peninsula. The Yaghan peoples were far more
sturdy and adapted to the cold weather of the far south than the
Russians had presumed in even their wildest imaginings.
The 13 Yaghan tribe members, from four related small villages on the
coast of Tierra del Fuego had survived the swim to shore and had quickly
built a snow shelter where they had clustered together sharing body
heat until they were all recovered from their swim through the icy
They had carefully kept watch on the two Russian ships, and it was with
great relief that they saw them sail away tracking the ice flows as they
went eastward out of sight. As soon as they were gone, the Yaghan set
about doing what they had to for survival. Fortunately for the Yaghan,
they quickly discovered that Weddell seals have no instinctive fear of
humans allowing them to be easily killed. Seal meat and blubber are
high energy food, the skins become containers, clothing when needed and
insulation between warm homes covered in thick insulating layers of
snow. Their oily secretions serve as an abundant and useful lamp oil,
providing the fires needed to survive the long dark winter months.
Because of the lack of other land predatory animals it is a relatively
simple matter to butcher a seal into its various useful parts and store
them in a frozen state in buried storage skins until they are needed.
Europeans dropped off in Antarctica with nothing but a few stolen knives
and a bit of stolen rope would have perished very soon after escaping.
The Yaghan were very skilled at survival, and once they discovered how
easy the abundant Weddell seals were to hunt, they quickly set to work
killing, processing, and storing the various parts of the animals for use
during the long cold winter they all knew were just three months from
starting. It was not yet Antarctic fall when the Yaghan arrived, but
stockpiling supplies for winter was a tradition that permitted their
survival in the harsh land of Tierra del Fuego for thousands of years
before the Russians had unintentionally transplanted them to the
Much like the Aleut peoples of northern Alaska and Canada, the Yaghan
culture was designed for survival in the harsh conditions. The people
knew how to work together for the common good and there was never any
question of shirking when one bad decision could lead to everyone's
When Antarctic Spring arrived in September 1820, the 13 Yaghan had not
only survived, they had prepared well enough to eat their fill all
winter and by spring two of the women were in their sixth month of
pregnancy leading to the first humans being born in Antarctica the last
week of December 1820.
For the next 80 years, many European expeditions ply the waters near
Antarctica searching for good seal hunting grounds but for the most part
they find much more profit hunting on the islands further north than
the mainland of the continent. The Yaghan tribes keep the tradition
alive that the strangers in the large boats are dangerous, best to be
avoided if possible or eliminated if necessary. By 1903, the Yaghan
number in the thousands living mostly on the west coast of the Antarctic
Peninsula and along the shore of the Bellingshausen Sea of the
mainland. Their diet consists of seals, penguins and the occasional
migratory bird plus the occasional whale that washes up on the beach
from time to time. There is almost no plant material in their diet
outside of whatever is in the stomach content of their prey animals.
Because their diets are rich in animal organ meats, they get all of the
vitamins and minerals they need to be in excellent health. Like all
hunter-gatherer peoples they revere the prey animals they hunt and use
every morsel of the carcass for something be it fuel, food, storage or
even personal adornment.
Though the Yaghan living in Tierra del Fuego wore little or no clothing,
the harsher climate of the Antarctic winters have caused their culture
to change to one where a full seal skin winter suit is common, complete
with warm mittens and boots. Even so, it is not uncommon for
Antarcticans to strip to just a loin covering in summer to get as much
of the southern summer sun and the Vitamin D it brings when the weather
nears the freezing point.
As the different world powers engage in the 'race to build empires' in
the 1800's, Antarctica remains largely ignored while more favorable
places are exploited. Then as expeditions attempting to over winter on
land in 1902, 1905, and 1912 disappeared mysteriously to the last man during the long
dark winter months there, is not much interest in continuing
to try. World War I and the Great Depression followed by World War II
keep the major powers too busy to spend much effort on Antarctica.
There were a series of claims and counter claims by different European
and South American countries during the 1920's and 1930's. At one point
in 1939, President Roosevelt of the United States intended to send a
pair of expeditions to live and work in Antarctica to establish that the
USA also had deep interests in the continent but domestic affairs
interrupted planning and he never got back around to it before the
outbreak of war with Japan in 1941.
Then in late 1945 American navy ships heading to South Africa from New
Zealand diverted south to map the Antarctic coast. As part of the
expedition naval photography aircraft are sent to film the coast from
moderately high altitude to record seals on the beaches during their pup
raising time of the year. Much to the shock of the photo lab and their
commanding officers some of the pictures clearly show people hunting
and butchering seals at different places on the edge of the herd.
At first many accusations of people trying to pull a joke on the
officers are made but later sets of photos show even more evidence.
Clearly there are people living on Antarctica with a culture based
around seal hunting at least in large part. Ill equipped to land anyone
to investigate the commanding admiral orders close up photos be taken of
the people; however, the low altitude flights inevitably lead to the
seals rushing in all different directions making it impossible for the
crews to get pictures of any humans up close. All sorts of speculation
goes around about Yeti or other types of Snow Men living wild in
Antarctica and in 1946 the subject becomes a priority for the newly
formed United Nations. Under UN auspices an expedition is sent in
September 1946 to try and make contact with the Antarctican natives.
In terms of making friendly contact, the expedition is a total failure.
Whenever the 'civilized' group enters any area the natives fade back out
of sight and avoid them. In terms of establishing what the
Antarcticans are, the expedition is much more successful when they
stumble across a native cemetery where they find a dozen bodies
perfectly preserved in the ice. The anthropologist and archeologist
members of the expedition insist on taking four of the dead with them
back to the ship for study, an infant, one pre-adolescent girl, a mature
male and an elderly female.
From the scientific point of view, the grave robbing is a total success
proving beyond a doubt that the Antarcticans are human. Physical
characteristics also show a high likelihood that they are related to the
Amerinds who settled the islands of Tierra del Fuego.
Anthropologically and archeologically, the way the bodies were treated
after death shows a reverence typical of cultures that believe in some
form of afterlife for humans.
From the Antarctican point of view, the invasion of their hunting grounds
during the peak gathering season when it is necessary to put up a
certain quantity of meat to get the tribes through the cold dark winter
was a source of anger, and the grave robbing simply made that distaste
of the outsiders much stronger.
Additional attempts at contact in 1948 and 1952 were also failures, and
the United Nations led by the United States anti-colonial sentiment
resolved in 1953 that the various claims to Antarctica by Argentina,
Australia, France, Chile, New Zealand, Norway and the United Kingdom are
all null and void. Antarctica belongs to the Antarcticans and unless
they are willing to negotiate some concessions voluntarily they and
their territory are under UN protection.
Finally in 1971, Chile comes up with the idea that, if the Antarcticans
are related to the Tierra del Fuego indigenous peoples, then perhaps the
survivors of those communities might have more success opening
communication. Unfortunately for the last two hundred years, many waves
of European disease and outright fighting have swept over the region and
the surviving native population is down to just a few hundred remaining
individuals. Finally one young man, Carlos Hernandez, is recruited.
Having just completed his Bachelors of Science degree, he is fully
westernized. To help him make contact, he is outfitted much like the
Antarctican hunters caught on film by different high altitude aircraft
over the years and practices hunting and self defense with the kinds of
weapons the Antarcticans carry. He is also given a two-onth intensive
course in Anthropology to help him understand what are believed to be
best practices in making contact.
In September 1971, a naval submarine anchors half a mile off the shore.
From that point, Carlos paddles to the beach in a one-man kayak made of a
whale bone frame and seal skins towing two more that hold his extra
supplies. The submarine submerges to periscope depth with just the
snorkel air tube, periscope and radio antenna above the surface.
Carlos beaches his kayaks at the south end of the rocky beach and
carries them one-by-one up away from the herd of seals where they will
be safe from any stampede. Once everything is secure, he sets up camp
very openly, then using the skills he has learned he hunts and kills a
young Weddell seal and hauls it back to his camp where he butchers it
and processes it semi-skillfully into its useful parts. Soon he has a
small fire of seal oil burning and is toasting meat over it on a bone
skewer. The only piece of advanced technology in Carlos' camp is the
atomic battery powered transistor radio he wears on a cord around his
neck. Though not a very powerful transmitter, it is more than strong
enough to be received by the antenna on the submarine.
For the first two days, the wary natives stay completely out of sight,
but by doing his best to appear to be as much like them as possible,
Carlos finally succeeds where all the proud expeditions of the past were
dismal failures. On the third day a young Antarctican hunter warily
but openly appears at the edge of Carlos camp and waits to be noticed.
Carlos carefully approaches the native and greets him with gestures of
peace used by his ancestors since before European contact. He then
offers the native his own spear, at which point the fellow breaks into a
relieved smile and trades spears with him, an ancient peace ritual.
Carlos knows the ancestral Yaghan language spoken by his grandparents
but the native accent is quite a bit different because it was not shaped
by two hundred years of European influence. Relieved to be understood
none the less Carlos invites the native to join his camp and they spend
an enjoyable afternoon talking about themselves to one another. Carlos
is being constantly tape recorded by the crew of the Submarine Southern
Cross who consider this to be some of the easiest though also most
boring duty they have ever done, sitting quietly in one spot recording.
While alone Carlos has been making Spanish language reports, pretty
much just a running commentary of his activities and observations, but
now that he has made contact the conversation is in a language none of
the sailors can understand at all.
The Antarctican origin story is very much the same as the one Carlos
learned from his own grandparents for the Yaghan people of Tierra del
Fuego and this coupled with the fact that the language is understandable
in both directions easily leads to the conclusion that the Antarcticans
are closely related to the Tierra del Fuego tribes.
Carlos spends two months living and working with the Antarcticans to
hunt and process seals to get the tribe through the cold winter months.
At the end of his time with the tribe he gifts them with the meat he
has gathered and processed to help them through the winter and promises
to return in a later season. Carefully packing up his three Kayaks he
paddles out to the location of the Southern Cross which surfaces just
far enough to expose the hatch and bring Carlos and his kayaks aboard.
Over the Antarctic winter season Carlos is given more anthropology and
diplomatic training and quite a nice paycheck for all that he managed to
accomplish. The issue then becomes, now that contact has been
established what exactly can the government of Chile gain from the
expense of maintaining or expanding the contact? Antarctica has all the
same mineral resources of any continent, coal, oil, natural gas,
copper, silver, gold... The problem is most of it is buried deep in the
ice making the mining of it more trouble than it is worth when there are
other easier to access sources outside of Antarctica itself.
Nevertheless Carlos is taught some mineralogy and agrees to spend a
winter over with the native Antarcticans in hopes that he might discover
something worth exploiting.
In his second expedition, Carlos sets up camp once again, this time near
an outcrop he had observed the previous year of a hard black material
that might be coal. He also brings along a number of modern tools and
artifacts, some for his work and some to use as gifts for the natives.
One of the items he carries with him the second year is a collapsible
asbestos cloth furnace. It packs into a small heavy disc but by pulling
it up like a top hat and setting the exterior braces to keep it
expanded it makes a workable coal stove. The gamble of hauling the
heavy thing along with him pays off when the rock does turn out to be
coal, which allows Carlos to have a merry little coal fire going in his
shelter safely providing heat from broken coal he gathers along the edge
of the seam. It also gives him the ability to heat any other mineral
samples he gathers intensely to separate metals from the ores.
To keep up his acceptability in the tribe he must spend much of his time
during peak season hunting and processing seals to provide necessities
for the cold winter months, but as a vigorous young man he is able to
perform both his 'share' of the hunting tasks and gather rock specimens
once a week or so when he has gotten ahead of his mental quota.
Fortunately, the Weddell seals that make up the bulk of the hunting
efforts are very easy to hunt, though not totally without risk.
The gifts of long steel spear tips, which make hunting easier also goes a
long way towards making his occasional hours off collecting rock
samples acceptable to the Yaghan Antarcticans to the point that one day
when he returns from a hunt dragging a carcass he discovers one young
woman, Eveny in his camp. Eveny helps process the seal with minimal
wasted cuts so that the job is done in much less than half the time it
was taking Carlos to process the seals himself even after two seasons of
practice. Later that night Eveny climbs into his sleeping pallet with
him and makes it clear she is here as more than just a butcher aide.
Being a young man and having been lonely for the last two months Carlos
doesn't resist her advances in any meaningful way and the arrangement
becomes permanent for most purposes.
Carlos only finds coal and a very small deposit of native copper,
nothing that would be considered of commercial value. It does provide
enough metal for him to present Eveny two copper charms to go along with
the carved bone charms on her bracelet and necklace, but the government
of Chile concludes there will be nothing of commercial value coming
from the Antarcticans except perhaps a few furs traded for manufactured
goods. The only other thing the continent is good for is
anthropological studies of the natives, like Carlos Hernandez is doing,
and ecosystem studies of the birds and sea mammals that gather to breed
or live like the petrels and penguins or the seals and walrus. In 1974,
the University of Chile makes Carlos their official Doctoral candidate
researcher in Antarctica and he makes a decent income by turning his
field notes into books for the general public about life amongst the
Yaghan of Antarctica and how important it is for the UN to protect their
way of life from outside interference. His stories about life with
Eveny and their children in the cold and dark winters and blindingly
bright summers of Antarctica inspire a generation of cultural
conservationists who spend decades trying to preserve isolated peoples
from the deluge of modern interference.
Monday, January 9, 2017
Friday, December 9, 2016
Augusta Ada Byron, Countess of Lovelace, was born the only legitimate child of famed poet Lord Byron and Anne Milbanke, 11th Baroness Wentworth. Just one month after Ada’s birth, her father departed to pursue his romantic dreams and adventures, never to visit England again. Ada’s mother never forgave Lord Byron’s abandonment and interpreted his poetic nature as insanity. To ensure that the madness did not pass along to their daughter, Ada was discouraged from poetry and encouraged to take up study of mathematics, logic, and science, fields that would make her famous.
Ada was sickly as a child with periodic headaches and a case of the measles so bad that she was temporarily paralyzed when she was fourteen years old. Through these illnesses, she pursued her studies, taking up a special interest in flight at age twelve. Her efforts in material analysis, bird anatomy, and forecasting navigation by compass were compiled and illustrated in her book Flyology. Although her theoretical study would not lead to practical results, she predicted the use of powered flight, suggesting steam at the time.
At seventeen, Ada was presented at the British Court, where she found a wide circle of interest. Through her years, she would be well acquainted with electrical scientist Michael Faraday; David Brewster, discoverer of the photoelastic effect; and Charles Wheatstone, inventor of the stethoscope. Although her passions were for science, Ada did inherit her father’s adventurous nature in relationships, at one point running away with the intention to marry her tutor. She did marry William, 8th Baron King, who was made Earl of Lovelace in 1838, although Ada was infamous for her relaxed behavior in her friendships with other men.
Through her good friend and former tutor Mary Somerville, Ada Lovelace was introduced to mathematician Charles Babbage in 1833, who had by then abandoned his designs for his Difference Engine due to contractual issues with the builder. He had turned to new designs for an improved Analytical Engine, which piqued Lovelace’s curious mind. They remained in contact, often walking and discussing mathematics, and a decade later, Lovelace translated articles from Babbage’s Italian disciples to which she added notes that described the machine being able to carry out an algorithm rather than simply calculating mathematical tables as Babbage originally intended. In fact, she speculated that the computing device would be able to act “upon other things besides number, were objects found whose mutual fundamental relations could be expressed by those of the abstract science of operations... [for example] pitched sounds in the science of harmony and of musical composition.”
In 1852, Ada Lovelace fell ill with uterine cancer. After a tremendous fight with her protective mother, Lovelace determined to abandon the doctors who had presented her with a death sentence to be postponed only by bloodletting and instead began investigating doctors for her own medical team. Dr. Charles Clay of Manchester had been successfully performing ovariotomies since 1842, although his abdominal hysterectomy procedure had no long-term survivors. Lovelace determined that statistically the survival rate was no worse than other surgeries and turned to ideals of cleanliness promoting antiseptic procedures. The life-saving hysterectomy was completed by gynecologist Dr. Thomas Keith of Edinburgh, granting Lovelace another three decades of contributions to science.
Using her courtly connections, Lovelace caught the interest of Prince Albert with tales of what an analytical machine might do for British industries such as textiles. Funding for Babbage’s engine materialized, and the first general-purpose mechanical computer was built in 1867. Already the engine was found to have a multitude of applications, famously looking to replace the hand-calculated manuals of the Royal artillery. Lovelace’s oldest son, Byron King-Noel, who had become an officer in the navy, noted its usefulness as an accountant and quartermaster. Dedicating himself to streamlining the navy, Byron led a long life and served as Britain’s longest sitting First Lord of the Admiralty.
During the construction of the Analytical Engine, Lovelace received a letter from the committee planning to create a place of higher education for women at Cambridge. Joining forces with Emily Davies, Barbara Bodichon, and Lady Stanley of Alderley, the committee founded the College for Women at Benslow House, later called Girton College. Through Lovelace’s influence, the college is renowned to this day for its students of mathematics and computer science.
Ada Lovelace died in 1885 after a short illness. Detached from her husband over what many whispered was a sandal, she had spent much of her later years visiting with her younger children, seeking to see adventure after her protective mother passed. Lovelace accompanied her middle child, Anne, along with her husband, Wilfrid Blunt, on a journey through the Middle East, collecting purebred Arabian horses. Lovelace’s youngest, Ralph, was very private, yet seemingly an adventurer like his grandfather as his climbing exploits in the Alps earned him a peak with his own name.
Ralph’s wide interest in literature and engineering made him something of an heir to his mother’s programming. He applied computing to agriculture, manufacturing, commerce, and even linguistics in attempts of making an automatic translation device. Lovelace often served as consultant, with Ralph following up on her suggestions, such as using electricity to drive new iterations of Analytical Engines. Famously, the two bickered over the concept of artificial intelligence, with Lovelace often repeating, “The Analytical Engine has no pretensions whatever to originate anything… It can follow analysis; but it has no power of anticipating any analytical relations or truths.” Two generations later, she would at last be proven wrong by Alan Turing’s famed Delilah machine.
In reality, Ada Lovelace died from uterine cancer in 1852. Abdominal hysterectomies would not be successful until the year after Lovelace’s death, first performed by Ellis Burnham of Massachusetts. Lovelace was only thirty-six years old, the same age as her father. Per her request, she was buried at his side in Nottinghamshire.
Posted by This Day in Alternate History at 10:00 PM
Tuesday, November 22, 2016
Hearing gunfire, some 90 Native American warriors from the Wampanoag tribe followed their chief Massasoit to investigate the happenings at the settlement established one year before by white-skinned separatist Pilgrims from England.
On a star-crossed journey funded by the Company of Merchant Adventurers, the Pilgrims left port and overcrowded on the leaky Mayflower. After more than two months at sea, they arrived in North America as winter was setting in. The would-be colonists stayed aboard the ship for weeks, sending out small expeditions for food until at last locating a suitable site chosen for its defensibility and readiness as it had recently been abandoned by Native Americans with land cleared for cultivation. It was not enough to stave off malnutrition and disease, which ravaged the passengers.
By next spring, the Pilgrim population had been cut in half, yet they were determined to establish a new home. Providence seemed to smile upon them when, on March 16, a Native American named Samoset walked into the middle of the colony and declared in English, “Welcome, Englishmen!” He had picked up a fair bit of their language from trappers and told them that the village they now lived in had before been wiped out from smallpox. It was within the realm led by Wampanoag chief Massasoit. Two years before, Massasoit had slaughtered English explorers who trespassed and rescued Tisquantum, who had been kidnapped and taken to Europe as a slave for five years.
The Pilgrims called the former slave “Squanto,” and he seemed to adopt the troubled settlers, training them in effective agricultural methods for the frigid Northeast. With the successful corn crop that fall, the Pilgrims decided to hold a traditional harvest festival. Four men were sent fowling, collecting a week’s worth of game for a feast. The other 49 surviving Pilgrims readied a Thanksgiving.
As the surviving account of Edward Winslow reads, “At which time, amongst other recreations, we exercised our arms, and many of the Indians [came] amongst us…” Setting off gunfire for pleasure along with hoots and singing brought Massasoit and his Native American warriors to investigate. When a stray shot struck one of the warriors, Massasoit interpreted it as a declaration of war. Only a handful of Pilgrims managed to survive the battle, fleeing into the woods and hiding along the coast until the Fortune arrived from England.
The Fortune brought 37 more settlers although few supplies as they expected to find a thriving community. Instead, they were met by bedraggled Pilgrims who saw no choice but to return to England, despite the Merchant Adventurers already accusing them of defaulting on the colony’s loan. The humiliated Pilgrims told ever-increasingly terrifying tales of the dangers of settling in “land God has truly forsaken.”
Although future English settlers avoided the area, there was still a strong drive for colonization to the south around the successful Jamestown and in sparser fur-trapping communities to the northwest. Other nations founded more successful colonies toward the cursed land, including New Sweden and New Netherlands. The Dutch conquered New Sweden in 1655, expanding their holdings south as well as at last pushing northward to dominate lands the Pilgrims had fled. The northern settlements were able to lend support during a blockade of New Amsterdam by English warships, driving the English away when their supplies ran low. Upon the Glorious Revolution of 1688, tensions in North America declined between growing Virginia and New Amsterdam until over-harvesting of furs prompted competition and several small wars along the borders. Finally in the Napoleonic Wars, Britain conquered New Amsterdam and absorbed it into complete holdings over North America north of Mexico. The dominion would last until broken up revolutions in the nineteenth century.
Posted by This Day in Alternate History at 12:04 PM
Monday, October 31, 2016
Having lasted over six months since April, the third modern Olympic Games would be the longest ever held. It was packed with memorable moments, such as British runner Wyndham Halswelle winning a walkover gold in the re-run 400 meter race, his three American competitors refusing to participate since the call for re-running was based on unclear rules. In other debated events, the first runner to complete the marathon, Italian Dorando Pietri, was disqualified since he entered the stadium in a daze and ran the last leg backwards. No one questioned the success of Swede Oscar Swahn, who at 60 years old won gold in shooting and would become the oldest gold medalist ever at 64 in the 1912 Olympics. He returned for the 1920 Olympics at age 72 to set another record as the oldest athlete ever to compete in the games.
|A young medium displays how high she can be levitated.|
Other notable activities at the games included exhibitions of sports such as dueling and figure skating. None, however, would be as memorable as the display of spiritualism in which competitors worked with trained teams of spirits to give the most incredible demonstration of ghostly activity.
While contact with the dead occurs in ancient writings and oral traditions to time immemorial, modern spiritualism evolved out of the religious reform taking place in the United States during the 1840s. Disappointed in the establishment for its lack of voice against slavery, freethinkers went as far as calling for women’s rights and humane care for sufferers of mental illness. Out of this movement, young Kate and Margaret Fox of Hydesville, New York, reported that they had been able to communicate with a spirit. Their fame grew but was soon eclipsed by Cora Scott, who began lecture circuits while the Fox Sisters had primarily held séances to a select few guests. Many other mediums began appearing on the popular stage throughout the nation and abroad, especially before the famous Ghost Club of London, directed at scientific investigations of ghostly phenomena.
For a generation, the western world was divided on the issue of contact with spirits. Many religious figures held it as witchcraft, spurring backlash that fed into several riots in major cities and the countryside. Skeptics spotted numerous frauds, but the 1887 Seybert Commission determined to the best of its judgment that about half their cases of rapping, spirit photography, and objects moved by unseen hands were genuine. Over time, it became a standard affair to contact a love one who had passed or attend a display of spiritualist feats as one might a circus. Famed magician Harry Houdini made a second career as an investigator for the FBI, discerning true mediums from those who were illusionists practicing tricks.
The spiritualism exhibition in 1908 featured several categories in which mediums competed. Mediums were judged on how high they could be levitated into the air, how loudly a prompted spirit could knock, and by the amount of ectoplasm produced by weight. Many brought their preferred spirits along with them, while others hoped to do their best with whoever might be wandering around the other side at the time.
Although such exhibitions would not be included in future Olympics, contact with the spirit world continued to be an important aspect of the twentieth century, especially following the large numbers of dead in the First World War. Most of the Olympic committee’s attention toward ghosts was in the search for frauds, such as the case in 1928 when Oscar Swahn returned, one year after his death, for another silver medal in shooting by possessing a younger athlete.
In reality, the Fox Sisters stated that their activities were a prank, with their infamous “rappings” actually being the popping of toe joints. Every case reviewed by the Seybert Commission was found to be a hoax.
Tuesday, October 25, 2016
One week after his own death, Thomas Edison proved himself once more to be an incredible inventor. Using a device he had worked on in secret for a decade, his assistants were able to contact Edison beyond the grave. An astounded crowd of press and socialites heard the first public words sent via Spirit Phone, fittingly those of its own creator, “It is very beautiful over here!”
Edison had managed a legendary career as an inventor and businessman. After being fired from his telegraph job for an electric battery experiment gone awry that destroyed his boss’s desk, Edison pursued his passions in creating new devices, including the quadraplex telegraph (1874), a phonograph (1877), an incandescent lightbulb (1879). Through the years, Edison would collect over one thousand patents, many focusing on improving technology and creating a new way of life for millions of people around the globe.
Toward the end of his own life, Edison became more philosophical. He wrote a commentary entitled “Spiritualism,” analyzing facets of the paranormal movement that had once more seized the public interest. While skeptics like Harry Houdini worked to disprove frauds, Edison stated that he did believe that “our personality hereafter will be able to affect matter.” Echoing the laws of conservation of matter and energy, Edison held that “life is undestructable.” He described a constant amount of “life units” on the planet, which would be broken apart upon death and reshuffled as “swarms” that made up aspects of every plant, animal, thought, and memory in the world.
Although Edison’s perceived seat of human personality in the Broca’s Area of the brain proved to be questionable, the Spirit Phone did show that souls lived on. Those who had recently passed away were contacted easily enough for final farewells. Those who had died long ago, however, seemed to have already been shuffled into absence. Teams of curious historians brought the Spirit Phone to reportedly haunted castles and churches, competing to find the oldest entity still able to communicate. Firsthand accounts from events centuries before soon became readily available.
The Spirit Phone proved instrumental to police, who were able to solve numerous murders simply by dialing up the victim for a statement. Soon each major police station had its own Spirit Phone and trained operator to summon potential witnesses. Prosecutors had more difficulty gaining convictions in court as recordings were often questioned or thrown out altogether. Further court matters arose when spirits sought to amend their wills and yet were legally dead, thus not having property rights.
Religious figures denounced the Spirit Phone despite its success in having past relatives use passwords or citing memories no one else could know about. Counterarguments suggested that the phone was being tampered with by demonic forces. Others held the phone as an ever more elaborate hoax. Edison himself had been called an atheist for years, although he routinely described his beliefs in the Supreme Intelligence.
In 1933, the newly deceased Fourteenth Dalai Lama of Tibet gave a limited address via Spirit Phone to discourage its use. He stated that the device prompted entities to remain tied to the mortal realm rather than passing on to become one with eternity, which would tip the delicate balance of life and death. Following the development of ghost-driven machines due to the need for manpower in World War II, many living people began to agree with him, although few would readily give up the Spirit Phone outright.
In reality, the invention is largely said to be myth, especially by the Edison Estate, who claim to have not seen any evidence of designs or prototypes in any of Edison’s work despite an interview in the October 1920 issue of Forbes magazine that he was working on such a device. Edison himself told the New York Times in 1926, “I really had nothing to tell him, but I hated to disappoint him, so I thought up this story about communicating with spirits, but it was all a joke.” Through the years, many other electronic devices often nicknamed “ghost boxes” have claimed to be able to communicate with the spirit realm. Skeptics remain unconvinced while believers feel that the human spirit can indeed affect electromagnetic fields and thus speak from beyond the grave.